In addition, decentralized flexibility can reduce the expansion of distribution grids required as part of the energy transition. According to a meta-analysis, the total costs can be reduced by up to 57 percent or up to 2.4 billion euros per year through avoided grid expansion. However, the considered studies forecast different requirements for the expansion of the distribution networks, depending on assumptions, for example, on the number of electric vehicles and heat pumps. In most studies considered, it remains open how the flexibility options are to be made usable. In principle, various mechanisms are available for this purpose; a local market for flexibility would be one option.